Health in All Policies: From the Local to the Global
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Global Public Health. Please check back later for the full article.
There is a broad consensus that the health of an individual or population is not influenced solely by the efforts of the formal health sector. Rather, it is also defined by the conditions of daily life as well as the inputs, intentional or not, of various stakeholders and policies. The recognition that health outcomes and inequity in health extend beyond the health sector across many social and governmental sectors has led to the emergence of a comprehensive policy perspective known as Health in All Policies (HiAP). Building on the key principles outlined in the Alma Ata Declaration (1978), the Ottawa Charter for Health (1986), the Final Report of the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (2008), and the Rio Political Declaration on the Social Determinants of Health (2011), Health in All Policies is a collaborative approach to public policies across sectors that systematically takes into account the health implications of decisions, seeks synergies, and avoids harmful health impacts in order to improve population health and health equity. Given the breadth and ambition of the Health in All Policies approach, it has great potential to serve as a powerful mechanism for linking the goals, means, and priorities associated with health in numerous global agendas such as Universal Health, the Social Determinants of Health, and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda.